The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is the Cabinet-level Federal department that directly supports demonstration, research, training, and service delivery activities for a range of children’s issues. The Children’s Bureau, a branch of the Administration for Children and Families, Department of Health and Human Services, is the main Federal funding source for child welfare activities. Other agencies that fund programs on children and family issues include the Department of Agriculture, Department of Defense, Department of Education, and more.

The CCDF Policies Database Book of Tables: Key Cross-State Variations in CCDF Policies as of October 1, 2009 (PDF – 1,741 KB)
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, & Urban Institute (2011)
Presents key aspects of the differences in Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF)-funded programs across all 50 States highlighting policy variations across five general areas of policy: eligibility requirements for families and children; family application, terms of authorization, and redetermination; family payments; policies for providers, including maximum reimbursement rates; and overall administrative and quality information.

Child Welfare Financing in the United States
DeVooght & Cooper (2013)
State Policy Advocacy and Reform Center
Summarizes key facts and trends regarding national, State, and local child welfare financing to help support child welfare services.

A Complete Guide to the Family First Prevention Services Act
Kelly (2018)
The Chronicle of Social Change
Provides guidance on the new funding structure emphasizing preventative child welfare measures over out-of-home care services as enacted through the Families First Act.

From Then to Now: The Evolution of Part C (Children With Special Needs — Special Issue of Zero to Three)
Hebbeler, Greer, & Hutton (2011)
View Abstract
Presents an opportunity to consider new developments for Part C during the 2011 reauthorization of IDEA including the evolution of implementation, number of children served, and current challenges to the provision of service delivery.How Federal Legislation Impacts Child Welfare Service Delivery

Series TitleFactsheets
Author(s)Child Welfare Information Gateway
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Year Published2015

This factsheet provides an overview of the process by which legislative actions and policy changes at the Federal level impact State and Tribal child welfare systems and service delivery. Links to pertinent resources are provided for each step of the process; however, the steps described do not always occur in the sequence in which they are listed below. (See the flow chart on the last page of this document.)

How Targeted are Federal Expenditures on Children?: A Kids’ Share Analysis of Expenditures by Income in 2009
Vericker, Isaacs, Hahn, Toran, & Rennane (2012)
Urban Institute & Brookings Institution
Identifies how Federal, State, and local expenditures on children are allocated across income groups and examines the amount the government spends on low-income children, the form of these expenditures (outlays vs. tax expenditures), and how narrowly spending is targeted within major categories of spending (health, education, nutrition, etc.).

Integrating Safety, Permanency, and Well-Being for Children and Families in Child Welfare: A Summary of Administration on Children, Youth, and Families Projects in Fiscal Year 2012 (PDF – 818 KB)
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth and Families (2012)
Examines the findings and lessons learned from a study of nine States that received waivers to conduct title IV-E child welfare demonstration projects to increase safety, permanency, and well-being for children and families involved with child welfare.

Kids’ Share 2010: Report on Federal Expenditures on Children Through 2009
Isaacs, Steuerle, Rennane, & Macomber (2010)
Examines how much of the Federal budget was directed toward children in 2009. The report includes a comparison of spending on children to the budget as a whole from 1960 to 2009, as well as future projections through 2020.

Kids’ Share 2011: Report on Federal Expenditures on Children Through 2010
Isaacs, Hahn, Rennane, Steuerle, & Vericker (2011)
Brookings Institution & Urban Institute
Presents the fifth annual Kids’ Share report and analysis of Federal expenditures for the last 50 years, including changes in the composition of funding and effects of the recession in the late 2000s.

Profiles of the Title IV-E Child Welfare Waiver Demonstration Projects (PDF – 1,259 KB)
James Bell Associates & Children’s Bureau (2012)
Provides profiles of 39 demonstration projects in 24 States including information on the target population, jurisdiction, intervention, evaluation design, and evaluation findings that address subsidized guardianship/kinship permanence, flexible funding and capped IV-E allocations, services for caregivers with substance use disorders, and intensive service options.

The Promoting Safe and Stable Families Program: Background and Context (PDF – 580 KB)
Casey Family Programs (2011)
Describes the Promoting Safe and Stable Families Program (PSSF), title IV-B, Subpart 2 of the Social Security Act including its purpose, history, and funding levels; examines how States have used PSSF funds to improve the lives of vulnerable children and families; and provides an overview of relevant research into the effectiveness of the types of services funded by PSSF.

Summary of the Title IV-E Child Welfare Waiver Demonstrations (PDF – 301 KB)
James Bell Associates & Children’s Bureau (2012)
Provides an overview on the types of service strategies that have been funded through title IV-E child welfare waiver demonstrations, the implementation status of the title IV-E waiver demonstration projects, evaluation designs used to evaluate the demonstrations, and key outcomes. A listing of websites to access child welfare demonstration project reports also is included.

Synthesis of Findings: Title IV-E Flexible Funding: Child Welfare Waiver Demonstrations (PDF – 602 KB)
James Bell Associates & Children’s Bureau (2011)
Discusses findings from a study that investigated the impact of waivers to certain requirements of title IV-B and IV-E of the Social Security Act to provide States flexibility in the use of Federal funds for alternative services and supports that promote safety and permanency for children in the child protection and foster care system.

Title IV-E Waivers: Expanding and Modifying Child Welfare Demonstration Waivers to Promote Flexibility and Foster Innovation (PDF – 818 KB)
Houshyar (2011)
First Focus
Explains the Federal child welfare waiver demonstration projects, reviews the history of the title IV-E waivers, and offers recommendations for expanding and improving the program, highlighting lessons learned to encourage legislators to consider promoting flexibility and fostering innovation in practice at the State level.